In-Situ AOP technology eliminates 800-foot Del. petroleum plume in months

Jan. 31, 2005
Groundwater & Environmental Services Inc. (GES) of Neptune, N.J., and Applied Process Technology Inc., of Pleasant Hill, Calif., have developed and implemented an advanced oxidation process (AOP) technology for the rapid and low-cost removal of contaminants in soil and groundwater at a Delaware contamination site completed in five months...

PLEASANT HILL, CA, Jan. 31, 2005 -- Groundwater & Environmental Services Inc. (GES) of Neptune, N.J., and Applied Process Technology Inc. of Pleasant Hill, Calif., together have developed and implemented an advanced oxidation process (AOP) technology for the rapid and low-cost removal of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The process combines Applied's PulseOx chemical oxidation technology with GES' Max-Ox nested injection well delivery mechanism to eliminate an 800-foot plume of petroleum constituents at a Delaware contamination site within five months. This was an underground storage tank release in Kenton, Del., where a site investigation was conducted in 2001.

PulseOx equipment was used to aggressively oxidize groundwater contaminants by pulsing and cycling four different reagents -- ozone, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and air -- in precise, pre-programmed dosages, sequences, and combinations into Max-Ox injection wells. This technique hastened cleanup through several rapid processes: chemical oxidation via ozone injection, hydrogen peroxide injection, and hydroxyl radical reaction; enhanced bioremediation via high dissolved oxygen levels; and mass transfer of volatile organic compounds via air injection. Max-Ox technology maximized the distribution of oxidants in the subsurface, expanding their radius of influence 15 feet or more around each injection point. The formation of hydroxyl radicals, which are powerful oxidizers, accelerated the degradation of contaminants to carbon dioxide and water.

Prior to treatment, hydrogeologic investigation had revealed that the plume extended under several properties and had impacted local private drinking wells. Pre-remediation concentrations of contaminants were noted at up to 26,300 micrograms per liter (µg/L) of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), 27,000 mg/L of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and 26,300 µg/L of the gasoline constituents benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX).

The cleanup process was started in October 2002. Within five months, there were no detectable contaminants in soil or water, exceeding even the original estimates of an aggressive nine-month treatment. Regulators at the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) approved site closure in July 2004, after one year of groundwater monitoring showed no rebound in contaminants. What's more, DNREC recognized this success story in the spring 2003 issue of its Think Tank publication.

"We evaluated many traditional and innovative options, and selected chemical oxidation as the fastest and most cost-effective way to achieve closure," stated Chuck Whisman, GES's director of engineering. "Our innovative and safe approach met our client's business objectives and was enthusiastically approved by regulators and the community."

"The results achieved at this site clearly indicate that the unique combination of PulseOx and Max-Ox technologies is very effective, aggressive, and accelerates the time required to close a treatment site." says Terry Applebury, Applied's president and chief executive officer. "Applied is very pleased to have participated with GES in this extremely successful in-situ treatment project."

About Applied Process Technology
Applied Process Technology Inc. ( provides technically superior pump-and-treat and in-situ water treatment solutions and services to the drinking water, environmental remediation and industrial process water markets. Applied specializes in treatment technologies that do not generate by-products or waste streams. Its HiPOx and PulseOx products utilize advanced oxidation and chemical oxidation processes that destroy a wide variety of contaminants including 1,4-dioxane, MTBE, TBA, and more. Applied and its alliance partners offer other technologies that treat a variety of contaminants, including perchlorate. New advanced products are under development.

About GES
Groundwater & Environmental Services, Inc. ( is a full-service environmental consulting firm specializing in soil and groundwater contaminant assessment and remediation. GES, now celebrating its 20th anniversary, has 30 offices with 500 hands-on professionals serving clients across the country. The company delivers responsive, innovative, and cost-effective environmental solutions to expedite site investigation, cleanup, and closure, and safely restore property value.


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